Armand Garnet Ruffo is a writer and scholar who draws on his Ojibway heritage for his work. Born in Chapleau, northern Ontario, his roots extend to the Sagamok Ojibway First Nation and the Chapleau Fox Lake Cree First Nation. He is recognized as one of the earliest contributors to both contemporary Indigenous literature and Indigenous literary criticism in Canada. In 2016 he co-edited Introduction to Indigenous Literary Criticism (Broadview Press). In 2015 he published The Thunderbird Poems, based on the paintings of the acclaimed Ojibway artist Norval Morrisseau (Harbour), and that same year his creative biography Norval Morrisseau: Man Changing Into Thunderbird (Douglas & McIntyre) was nominated for the Governor General’s Literary Award. He is the Queen’s National Scholar in Indigenous Literature at Queen’s University, Kingston.